These included the consolidation and demarcation of sovereignty, the surveillance of the population, and the education of citizens. It was introduced into India by the Mughals and widely used since then. After World War I, in which approximately one million Indians served ,  a new period began. The Indian early medieval age, CE to CE, is defined by regional kingdoms and cultural diversity. Fed by diverse resentments and perceptions, including invasive British-style social reforms, harsh land taxes, and summary treatment of some rich landowners and princes, the rebellion rocked many regions of northern and central India and shook the foundations of Company rule. Geography of India A topographic map of India India comprises the bulk of the Indian subcontinent, lying atop the Indian tectonic plate , and part of the Indo-Australian Plate. These parallel chains run from the Arabian Sea coast in Gujarat in the west to the coal-rich Chota Nagpur Plateau in Jharkhand in the east. All were capped by the advent of independence in , but tempered by the partition of India into two states: Areas directly governed by the British are shaded pink; the princely states under British suzerainty are in yellow. Jainism came into prominence during the life of its exemplar, Mahavira. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety. Although at first disruptive for the Indian elites, the sultanate largely left its vast non-Muslim subject population to its own laws and customs. The rush of technology and the commercialisation of agriculture in the second half of the 19th century was marked by economic setbacks—many small farmers became dependent on the whims of far-away markets. The appointment in of Lord Dalhousie as Governor General of the East India Company set the stage for changes essential to a modern state. It was marked by British reforms but also repressive legislations , by more strident Indian calls for self-rule, and by the beginnings of a nonviolent movement of non-co-operation, of which Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi would become the leader and enduring symbol. It extends as far north as the Satpura and Vindhya ranges in central India.