D for an evil grin, which can be, again, used in reverse, for an unhappy angry face, in the shape of D: For example, an advertisement of a book uses the SMS language: The character existed in Oracle bone script , but its use as emoticon was documented as early as January 20, In , Walmart opposed the registration, citing a likelihood of confusion between the Loufrani smiley and a smiley face Walmart had been using since The terms of the settlement were undisclosed, but Walmart continued to use its smiley design intermittently and returned to using it in a major marketing role in Seeking to prevent Walmart from using any smiley face design, Nicolas Loufrani next sued Walmart in federal court in , while claiming that his smiley face was "readily distinguishable" from Walmart's. Use in advertisements[ edit ] In recent years, advertisements have been increasingly influenced by SMS language. These were quickly picked up by 4chan and spread to other Western sites soon after. Of all the errors found, quite a substantial amount cannot be attributed to use of SMS language. The asterisks indicate the eyes; the central character, commonly an underscore , the mouth; and the parentheses, the outline of the face. Emoticons had already come into use in sci-fi fandom in the s,  although there seems to have been a lapse in cultural continuity between the communities. Gajadhar and Green comment that both Morse code abbreviations are more succinct than modern abbreviations such as LOL. In his book, Crystal argues that: Common Western examples[ edit ] Main article: A blush can be expressed as: List of emoticons The most basic emoticons are relatively consistent in form, but each of them can be transformed by being rotated making them tiny ambigrams , with or without a hyphen nose.