The report says while women have made substantial progress in closing the gender gap in managerial and professional jobs, most female managers worldwide are still barred from the top levels of organizations, whether in the private or public sector or in political life. In some countries in sub-Saharan Africa, time-related underemployment for women is as high as 40 or 50 per cent of total employment while women continue working fewer hours in paid employment and still perform the vast majority of unpaid household and care work. In Niger, the percentage of women managers and administrators rose from 3 per cent in to 8 per cent in However, the earnings of women professionals in the UK reached 83 per cent of those of men, making UK women professionals one of the least disadvantaged groups in terms of the wage gap. In developed economies, employed women either in self-employment or wage and salaried employment work 8 hours and 9 minutes in paid and unpaid work, compared to 7 hours and 36 minutes worked by men. Achieving harmonization between work and family life by recognizing, reducing and redistributing unpaid care work through the promotion of decent and adequately paid jobs in the care economy. Competitive companies cannot afford to lose out on women's talent. In some countries, little change has occurred in women's share of management. Women in developing countries also have access to more child care and household assistance, thanks to extended family systems and the availability of affordable domestic help. Between and , employment increased most rapidly in emerging economies; the absolute change in employment levels was twice as high for men as for women million versus million respectively , regardless of the level of skills required, indicating that progress in getting women into more and quality jobs is stagnating. While women's education, training and work experience are increasingly equipping them with the necessary qualifications and skills to aspire to and be selected for top positions, significant gender differences persist in the nature and quality of education and training, says Ms. Another survey of the FTSE companies found that women accounted for only 4 per cent of directors and 2 per cent of executive directorships. Moreover, the report also provides new evidence on the nexus wage, employment and social protection. The proportion of women in such jobs in Pakistan grew only from 3 to 4 per cent between and The proportions for women reach In the United States, a third of small and medium-sized companies are now run by women.