The arc discharge technique was well-known to produce the famed Buckminster fullerene on a preparative scale,  and these results appeared to extend the run of accidental discoveries relating to fullerenes. Bulk carbon nanotubes have already been used as composite fibers in polymers to improve the mechanical, thermal and electrical properties of the bulk product. Those features determine nearly any other properties such as optical, mechanical, and electrical properties. The diameter typically varies in the range 0. Thus we get expressions like , "Sanskrit," , "Sanskrit characters. It has been used for wind turbines, marine paints and a variety of sports gear such as skis, ice hockey sticks, baseball bats, hunting arrows, and surfboards. In addition, bolometer  and optoelectronic memory  devices have been realised on ensembles of single-walled carbon nanotubes. They suggested two possibilities of such arrangements: Though Iijima has been given much of the credit for discovering carbon nanotubes, it turns out that the timeline of carbon nanotubes goes back much further than Crystallographic defects also affect the tube's electrical properties. There are significant challenges to be overcome, however, such as undesired current saturation under voltage,  the much more resistive nanotube-to-nanotube junctions and impurities, all of which lower the electrical conductivity of the macroscopic nanotube wires by orders of magnitude, as compared to the conductivity of the individual nanotubes. At the age of 14, Lu was admitted to the Shanghai Children Art Theatre, and has appeared in more than 70 stage plays. The older practice, however, was dedicated characters that might have a larger meaning. This technology will greatly reduce the risk of an in-flight failure caused by structural degradation of aircraft. Graphitic substitution of carbon atoms in the nanotube wall by boron or nitrogen dopants leads to p-type and n-type behavior, respectively, as would be expected in silicon.